Emerging destructive practices are developing in cyberspace: criminal use of the Internet (cybercrime), including for terrorist purposes, large-scale dissemination of false information, political or economic intelligence, attacks on critical infrastructure (transport, energy, communication...) for sabotage purposes, etc.
Originating from state or non-state groups, cyber-attacks:
- have no regard for borders and distances;
- are difficult to trace: it is very difficult to formally identify the real attacker, who often acts under the cover of involuntary relays (botnets) or intermediaries (proxies);
- can be carried out relatively easily, at low cost and at very low risk to the attacker. They are intended to jeopardize the proper functioning of information and communication systems (ICS) used by citizens, businesses and administrations, or even the physical integrity of infrastructures essential to national security.
Cybersecurity covers all the security measures that can be taken to defend against these attacks. The dramatic increase in the degree of complexity and intensity of cyber-attacks has led most developed countries in recent years to strengthen their resilience and adopt national cyber security strategies.